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Urethroscopy is a procedure that allows the inner lining (mucosa) of the urethra to be endoscopically examined.  During a urethroscopy, the endocope is inserted into the urethra where the mucosa is examined for disease, which may show up as polyps or masses. Abnormalities are biopsied and submitted to a veterinary pathologist for evaluation for cancer and inflammation


This picture is taken during urethroscopy in a dog. Normal urethral mucosa is seen. 

Symptoms that your pet may be exhibiting to indicate that a urethroscopy may be needed include inability or straining to urinate, urine leaking (urinary incontinence), bloody urine, chronic urinary tract infections, abnormal vaginal/penile discharge, the presence of urinary tract stones and flattened or ribbon-like stools.